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Bombus (Cullumanobombus) apollineus
Skorikov, 1910
Auteurs(s) : Pierre Rasmont, A. Murat Aytekin, Osman Kaftanoğlu & Didier Flagothier
The range of Bombus apollineus is restricted to E. Anatolia, Transcaucasia and N. Iran. We have not found any specimens from the Caucasus and we did not find any reference to this region.
In Anatolia, the altitudinal range is, according to Özbek (1998), from 1300 to 2800 m and according to Reinig (1971), 1600 to 2600 m. Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) found this taxon from 1300 up to 2855 m with 80% of the observations between 1770 and 2315 m. In Iran, Baker (1996) indicates a range of 2200 to 3000 m.
Baker (1996) describes its habitat as "montane semi-desert". We regard it as typical of montane steppes with pillow-like Astragalus spp. and Acantholimon spp.
Bombus apollineus belongs to the set of montane species, the most typical of which are B. incertus, B. armeniacus, B. persicus and B. niveatus. However, B. apollineus is always rather uncommon and is found in the most open surroundings only.
As visited flowers, Özbek (1983) lists: Ajuga chia L., Ajuga orientalis L., Anchusa italica Retz., Astragalus cinereus Willd., Astragalus ponticus Pall., Carduus spp., Carthamnus tinctorius L., Centaurea agregata Fisch., Centaurea carduiformis DC., Centaurea glastifolia L., Cirsium spp., Colsinia brachyptera L., Echinops ritro L., Epilobium sp., Helianthus annuus L., Lamium album L., Lamium amplexicaule L., Lathyrus sp., Lythrum alatum Pursch., Medicago sativa L., Onobrychis viciifolia Scopoli, Pedicularis tuberosa L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia candidissima Vahl., Salvia frigida Boiss., Stachys annua L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Trifolium pratense L. The same author (Özbek, 1998) mentions 90 visited flower species specifying that B. apollineus pollinates the following crop species : Onobrychis viciaefolia, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Helianthus annuus and Brassica napus.
From our own data, we list : Carduus macrocephalus Desf. subsp. brachycentros Hausskn. (25 observations), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (18), Carduus cf. nutans L. (14), Anchusa sp. (10), Cephalaria cf. kotschyi Boiss. & Hohen (8), Carduus sp. (7), Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm. (6), Onobrychis cf. ajastana Boiss. (5), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Bobrov (4), Cerinthe sp. (3), Melilotus sp. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Centaurea glastifolia L. (2), Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (2), Alkanna sp. (1), Anchusa officinalis L. (1), Arctium sp. (1), Astragalus sp. (1), Carduaeae (1), Mentha sp. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Phlomis pungens Willd. (1), Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. (1), Trifolium repens L. subsp. macrorrhizum (Boiss.) Boiss. (1).
In Iran, Baker (1996) mentions Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm., in the same country, Dr. H.F.Paulus observed it on Carduaeae.
In all these lists, Anchusa spp., Cardueaea, Onobrychis spp., and Salvia verticillata L. are prominent.


La distribution de Bombus apollineus est restreinte à l'est de l'Anatolie, à la Transcaucasie et au nord de l'Iran. Nous n'avons pas connaissance de spécimens du Caucase et nous n'avons pas trouvé de référence à ce sujet.
En Anatolie, la gamme d'altitude est, selon Özbek (1998), de 1300 à 2800 m et selon Reinig (1971), 1600 à 2600 m. Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) ont trouvé ce taxon de 1300 jusque 2855 m avec 80% des observations entre 1770 et2315 m. En Iran, Baker (1996) indique 2200-3000 m.
Baker (1996) décrit son habitat comme "montane semi-desert". Nous le voyons plutôt comme typique des steppes montane avec des Astragalus spp. et Acantholimon spp en coussinets.
Bombus apollineus appartient au groupe d'espèces montane dont les plus typiques sont B. incertus, B. armeniacus, B. persicus et B. niveatus. Toutefois, B. apollineus est toujours plutôt rare et ne se trouve que dans les paysages les plus ouverts.
Comme fleurs visitées, Özbek (1983) cite: Ajuga chia L., Ajuga orientalis L., Anchusa italica Retz., Astragalus cinereus Willd., Astragalus ponticus Pall., Carduus spp., Carthamnus tinctorius L., Centaurea agregata Fisch., Centaurea carduiformis DC., Centaurea glastifolia L., Cirsium spp., Colsinia brachyptera L., Echinops ritro L., Epilobium sp., Helianthus annuus L., Lamium album L., Lamium amplexicaule L., Lathyrus sp., Lythrum alatum Pursch., Medicago sativa L., Onobrychis viciifolia Scopoli, Pedicularis tuberosa L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia candidissima Vahl., Salvia frigida Boiss., Stachys annua L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Trifolium pratense L. Le même auteur (Özbek, 1998) mentionne 90 fleurs visitées en précisant que B. apollineus pollinise les cultures suivantes: Onobrychis viciaefolia, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Helianthus annuus et Brassica napus.
De nos propres données, nous avons: Carduus macrocephalus Desf. subsp. brachycentros Hausskn. (25 observations), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (18), Carduus cf. nutans L. (14), Anchusa sp. (10), Cephalaria cf. kotschyi Boiss. & Hohen (8), Carduus sp. (7), Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm. (6), Onobrychis cf. ajastana Boiss. (5), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Bobrov (4), Cerinthe sp. (3), Melilotus sp. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Centaurea glastifolia L. (2), Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (2), Alkanna sp. (1), Anchusa officinalis L. (1), Arctium sp. (1), Astragalus sp. (1), Carduaeae (1), Mentha sp. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Phlomis pungens Willd. (1), Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. (1), Trifolium repens L. subsp. macrorrhizum (Boiss.) Boiss. (1).
En Iran, Baker (1996) mentionne Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm.. Dans le même pays, Dr. H.F.Paulus l'a observé sur des Cardueae.
Dans toutes ces listes, on remarque surtout Anchusa spp., Cardueaea, Onobrychis spp., et Salvia verticillata L.


Bombus apollineus Doğu Anadolu, Transkafkasya ve Kuzey İran bölgelerinde yayılış göstermektedir. Kafkasya'dan hiç örnek tespit edilmediği gibi bu konuya dair herhangi bir çalışma da bulunmamaktadır.
Anadolu'da yükselti aralığı Özbek (1998)'e göre 1300 ile 2800 metre, Reinig (1971)'e göre 1600 ile 2600 metre, Rasmont & Flagothier (1996)'e göre 1300 ile 2855 metredir. Bu çalışmaya göre örneklerin %80'i 1770 ile 2315 metre aralığında gözlemlenmiştir. İran'da Baker (1996) 2200 ile 3000 metre aralığını vermektedir.
Baker (1996) bu türün "dağlık yarı-çöl" habitatını tercih ettiğini ifade etmektedir. Bize göre de bu tür Astragalus spp. ve Acantholimon spp. gibi yastıkçık bikilerin bulunduğu dağlık steplere özgüdür.
Bombus apollineus B. incertus, B. armeniacus, B. persicus ve B. niveatus gibi dağlık alanları tercih eden türler grubundandır. Ancak, B. apollineus daha nadir gözlenir ve sıklıkla açık alanları tercih etmektedir.
Ziyaret ettiği bitkiler Özbek (1983)'e göre Ajuga chia L., Ajuga orientalis L., Anchusa italica Retz., Astragalus cinereus Willd., Astragalus ponticus Pall., Carduus spp., Carthamnus tinctorius L., Centaurea agregata Fisch., Centaurea carduiformis DC., Centaurea glastifolia L., Cirsium spp., Colsinia brachyptera L., Echinops ritro L., Epilobium sp., Helianthus annuus L., Lamium album L., Lamium amplexicaule L., Lathyrus sp., Lythrum alatum Pursch., Medicago sativa L., Onobrychis viciifolia Scopoli, Pedicularis tuberosa L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia candidissima Vahl., Salvia frigida Boiss., Stachys annua L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Trifolium pratense L.'dir. Aynı yazar (Özbek, 1998) 90 bitki türünden bahsetmekte ve özellikle de B. apollineus'un Onobrychis viciaefolia, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Helianthus annuus ve Brassica napus gibi kültür bitkilerinin önemli bir tozlaştırıcısı olduğunu ifade etmektedir.
Bizim bulgularımıza göre şu bitkilerden bahsedebiliriz: Carduus macrocephalus Desf. subsp. brachycentros Hausskn. (25 örnek), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (18), Carduus cf. nutans L. (14), Anchusa sp. (10), Cephalaria cf. kotschyi Boiss. & Hohen (8), Carduus sp. (7), Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm. (6), Onobrychis cf. ajastana Boiss. (5), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Bobrov (4), Cerinthe sp. (3), Melilotus sp. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Centaurea glastifolia L. (2), Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (2), Alkanna sp. (1), Anchusa officinalis L. (1), Arctium sp. (1), Astragalus sp. (1), Carduaeae (1), Mentha sp. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Phlomis pungens Willd. (1), Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. (1), Trifolium repens L. subsp. macrorrhizum (Boiss.) Boiss. (1).
İran'da Baker Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn. & Bornm.) Bornm. 'dan bahsederken aynı ülkede Dr. H. F. Paulus bu türü Carduaeae üzerinde gözlemlemiştir.
Tüm bu listelerde özellikle Anchusa spp., Carduaeae, Onobrychis spp. ve Salvia verticillata L. önemlidir.

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