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Bombus (Mendacibombus) handlirschianus
Vogt, 1909
Auteurs(s) : Pierre Rasmont, A. Murat Aytekin, Osman Kaftanoğlu & Didier Flagothier
Coat colours make it generally easy to distinguish females of handlirschianus from those of shaposhnikovi. At the present time, one can not separate the males from handlirschianus from those of shaposhnikovi. They have an identical creamy striping pattern and the same genitalia.
Little is known on this strictly alpine species, described by Reinig (1971) as an open field one. It lives in the alpine steppes of Anatolia, Transcaucasia, Caucasus and N. Iran. Özbek (1983, 1997) found it at altitudes of 2300-2900 m. Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) made 80 % of their observations between 2000 and 2855 m, the total range being 1790 to 3000m.
B. handlirschianus is one of the characteristic species of the alpine stage in E. Anatolia, the other being – in decreasing order of abundance : alagesianus, melanurus, pomorum canus, erzurumensis, cryptarum armeniacus, mesomelas alboluteus, portschinskyi, shaposhnikovi, oezbeki and velox (Rasmont & Flagothier, 1996).
In E. Anatolia, it is generally found in the same places as the nearest species, shaposhnikovi, except for the mountains of central Anatolia (Ilgaz daglari, Erciyes dagi, Büyük Toros daglari) where the latter has not been found.
Without quantifying his observations, Özbek (1983, 1990b, 1997) mentions the following numerous taxa : Acantholimon 1 species, Achillea 1 sp., Anchusa 2 spp., Astragalus 5 spp., Campanula 2 spp., Carduus spp., Cerinthe 1 sp., Centaurea 4 spp., Cephalaria 1 sp., Cicer 1 sp., Cichorium intybus, Cirsium 2 spp., Coronilla 2 spp., Cotoneaster 1 sp., Dianthus 1 sp., Epilobium angustifolium, Erigeron 2 spp., Eryngium 1 sp., Gentiana 2 spp., Geum 1 sp., Hedysarum 1 sp., Hypericum 1 sp., Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv., Lamium 3 spp., Lathyrus sp., Lotus 1 sp., Medicago 3 spp., Minuartia 2 sp., Myosotis 1 sp., Onobrychis 1 sp., Pedicularis 1 sp., Potentilla 3 spp., Rhinanthus 1 sp., Salvia 2 sp., Scabiosa 1 sp., Scutellaria 1 sp., Serratula 1 sp., Silene 1 sp., Stachys 2 spp., Taraxacum 2 spp., Teucrium 1 sp., Thymus 2 spp., Tragopogon 1 sp., Trifolium 3 spp., Veronica 2 spp., Vicia 1 sp., Xeranthemum 1 sp., Ziziphora 1 sp.
The authors (including the data of Rasmont & Flagothier, 1996) observed B. handlirschianus on the following flowers: Nepeta fissa C.A. Meyer (87 specimens, including 3 $$), Stachys cretica L. (20), Trifolium repens L. (15), Stachys balansae Boiss. & Kotschy (14 of which 1 $), Astragalus spp. (12), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv. (9), Cirsium cf. obvallatum (Bieb.) Bieb. (6), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (5, including 2 $$), Anchusa sp. (4), Hedysarum hedysaroides (L.) Schinz & Thell. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Thymus cf. nigricus Klokov & Des. Shost. (2), Carduus sp. (1 $), Compositae indet. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Prunella sp. (1), Thymus sp. (1), Trifolium pratense L. (1), Vicia villosa Roth (1).
Favourite flowers are clearly Labiatae, Leguminosae and Carduae.


La couleur du pelage permet de distinguer aisément les femelles d'handlirschianus de celles de shaposhnikovi. Pour le moment, on ne sait pas encore séparer les mâles de ces deux espèces: ils ont une robe identique, avec des bandes crême, et les mêmes génitalia.
On connaît peu de choses sur cette espèces strictement alpine, donnée par Reinig (1971) comme une espèce de milieux ouverts. Elle vit dans les steppes alpines d'Anatolie, de Transcaucasie, du Caucase et du N. Iran. Özbek (1983, 1997) l'a trouvé à des latitudes de 2300-2900 m. Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) citent 1790-3000m avec 80 % de leurs observations entre 2000 et 2855 m.
B. handlirschianus est une des espèces caractéristiques de l'étage alpin steppique de l'Est anatolien avec (par ordre décroissant d'abondance): alagesianus, melanurus, pomorum canus, erzurumensis, cryptarum armeniacus, mesomelas alboluteus, portschinskyi, shaposhnikovi, oezbeki and velox (Rasmont & Flagothier, 1996).
Dans l'est de l'Anatolie, on trouve généralement handlirschianus dans les mêmes stations que l'espèce la plus proche shaposhnikovi. Ce n'est pas le cas dans les montagnes de l'Anatolie centrale (Ilgaz daglari, Erciyes dagi, Büyük Toros daglari) où on ne trouve pas shaposhnikovi.
Sans quantifier ses observations, Özbek (1983, 1990b, 1997) cite les très nombreuses fleurs butinées suivantes: Acantholimon 1 sp., Achillea 1 sp., Anchusa 2 spp., Astragalus 5 spp., Campanula 2 spp., Carduus spp., Cerinthe 1 sp., Centaurea 4 spp., Cephalaria 1 sp., Cicer 1 sp., Cichorium intybus, Cirsium 2 spp., Coronilla 2 spp., Cotoneaster 1 sp., Dianthus 1 sp., Epilobium angustifolium, Erigeron 2 spp., Eryngium 1 sp., Gentiana 2 spp., Geum 1 sp., Hedysarum 1 sp., Hypericum 1 sp., Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv., Lamium 3 spp., Lathyrus sp., Lotus 1 sp., Medicago 3 spp., Minuartia 2 sp., Myosotis 1 sp., Onobrychis 1 sp., Pedicularis 1 sp., Potentilla 3 spp., Rhinanthus 1 sp., Salvia 2 sp., Scabiosa 1 sp., Scutellaria 1 sp., Serratula 1 sp., Silene 1 sp., Stachys 2 spp., Taraxacum 2 spp., Teucrium 1 sp., Thymus 2 spp., Tragopogon 1 sp., Trifolium 3 spp., Veronica 2 spp., Vicia 1 sp., Xeranthemum 1 sp., Ziziphora 1 sp.
En incluant les données de Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) nous avons observé B. handlirschianus sur les fleurs suivantes: Nepeta fissa C.A. Meyer (87 spécimens, dont 3 mâles), Stachys cretica L. (20), Trifolium repens L. (15), Stachys balansae Boiss. & Kotschy (14 dont 1 mâle), Astragalus spp. (12), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv. (9), Cirsium cf. obvallatum (Bieb.) Bieb. (6), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (5, dont 2 mâles), Anchusa sp. (4), Hedysarum hedysaroides (L.) Schinz & Thell. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Thymus cf. nigricus Klokov & Des. Shost. (2), Carduus sp. (1 mâle), Compositae indet. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Prunella sp. (1), Thymus sp. (1), Trifolium pratense L. (1), Vicia villosa Roth (1).
Les fleurs favorites sont clairement des Labiatae, des Leguminosae et des Cardueae.


Tüy rengi genellikle handlirschianus dişilerinin shaposhnikovi'den ayrılmasını sağlamaktadır. Ancak bugüne kadar handlirschianus ve shaposhnikovi erkeklerini ayırt etmeyi kimse başaramamıştır. Bunlarda bantlanma ve genital organ yapısı özdeştir.
Reinig (1971) tarafından açık alan türü olarak betimlenen bu tipik alpin tür hakkında oldukça az bilgi bulunmaktadır. Anadolu, Transkafkasya, Kafkasya ve Kuzey İran'ın alpin steplerinde yaşamaktadır. Özbek (1983, 1997) bu türü 2300-2900 metrede, Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) gözlemlerinin %80'ini 2000 ve 2855 metrede en azı da 1790 en fazlası da 3000 metrede olmak üzere yapmışlardır.
B. handlirschianus Doğu Anadolu'nun karakteristik türlerinden bir tanesidir ve alagesianus, melanurus, pomorum canus, erzurumensis, cryptarum armeniacus, mesomelas alboluteus, portschinskyi, shaposhnikovi, oezbeki ve velox türleri gibi yoğunlukları azalmaktadır (Rasmont & Flagothier 1996).
Doğu Anadolu'da kendisine en yakın tür olan shaposhnikovi ile aynı yerlerde bulunsalar da bu ikincisi Orta Anadolu'da (Ilgaz Dağları, Erciyes Dağı ve Büyük Toros Dağları) rastlanmamıştır.
Gözlemleri iyi ifade edilmemiş olsa da Özbek (1983, 1990b, 1997) şu taksayı vermektedir: Acantholimon 1 tür, Achillea 1 sp., Anchusa 2 spp., Astragalus 5 spp., Campanula 2 spp., Carduus spp., Cerinthe 1 sp., Centaurea 4 spp., Cephalaria 1 sp., Cicer 1 sp., Cichorium intybus, Cirsium 2 spp., Coronilla 2 spp., Cotoneaster 1 sp., Dianthus 1 sp., Epilobium angustifolium, Erigeron 2 spp., Eryngium 1 sp., Gentiana 2 spp., Geum 1 sp., Hedysarum 1 sp., Hypericum 1 sp., Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv., Lamium 3 spp., Lathyrus sp., Lotus 1 sp., Medicago 3 spp., Minuartia 2 sp., Myosotis 1 sp., Onobrychis 1 sp., Pedicularis 1 sp., Potentilla 3 spp., Rhinanthus 1 sp., Salvia 2 sp., Scabiosa 1 sp., Scutellaria 1 sp., Serratula 1 sp., Silene 1 sp., Stachys 2 spp., Taraxacum 2 spp., Teucrium 1 sp., Thymus 2 spp., Tragopogon 1 sp., Trifolium 3 spp., Veronica 2 spp., Vicia 1 sp., Xeranthemum 1 sp., Ziziphora 1 sp.
Yazarlar (Rasmont & Flagothier 1996 datası da dahil olmak üzere) B. handlirschianus'u şu bitkilerde gözlemlemişlerdir: Nepeta fissa C.A. Meyer (87 örnek, 3 $$ da dahil), Stachys cretica L. (20), Trifolium repens L. (15), Stachys balansae Boiss. & Kotschy (1'i $ olmak üzere 14), Astragalus spp. (12), Jurinella moschus (Habl.) Dobrv. (9), Cirsium cf. obvallatum (Bieb.) Bieb. (6), Cephalaria cf. procera Fisch. & Lall. (2 $$ olmak üzere 5), Anchusa sp. (4), Hedysarum hedysaroides (L.) Schinz & Thell. (3), Symphytum asperum Lepechin (3), Thymus cf. nigricus Klokov & Des. Shost. (2), Carduus sp. (1 $), Compositae indet. (1), Onobrychis sp. (1), Prunella sp. (1), Thymus sp. (1), Trifolium pratense L. (1), Vicia villosa Roth (1).
Tercih ettiği çiçeklerin Labiatae, Leguminosae ve Cardueae olduğu açıktır.

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